Self-efficacy in essential hypertension can be measured using scales, such as the “Hypertension Self-Care Profile” (HTN-SCP) questionnaire. It assesses “Behavior”, “Motivation”, and “Self-efficacy” in 3 domains, respectively. This study aimed to validate the Mandarin version of HTN-SCP instrument (HTN-SCP-Mn) targeted at patients of Chinese ethnicity with hypertension.
Our study recruited Chinese patients, aged 40 years and older, with essential hypertension from a public primary healthcare clinic in Singapore. The 60-item HTN-SCP-Mn questionnaire was completed online using a tablet or smartphone on enrolment. A retest was conducted 2 weeks after the initial test. Reliability was assessed by internal consistency and test–retest reliability using Cronbach alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Differences between the overall HTN-SCP-Mn scores of the patients and their self-reported self-management activities were also determined using independent t test.
Of the 153 patients who completed the HTN-SCP-Mn during the initial test, 79 responded to the test–retest evaluation. Reliability of the 3 domains “Behavior”, “Motivation”, and “Self-efficacy” obtained high internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.838, 0.929, and 0.927, respectively). The item total correlation ranged from 0.058 to 0.677 for Behavior, 0.374 to 0.798 for Motivation, and 0.326 to 0.767 for self-efficacy. The ICC indicated fair to good test–retest reliability with scores of 0.643, 0.579, and 0.710 for the respective domains.
The results showed face validity of the HTN-SCP-Mn instrument, indicating its potential application in mandarin-proficient patients. Further study is needed to correlate its scores with objective demonstration of self-efficacy.