Urgent laparoscopic ureterolithotomy for proximal ureter stones accompanied with obstructive pyelonephritis: Is it safe and effective without preoperative drainage?

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To evaluate the safety and efficacy of retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy (RLU) in the treatment of proximal ureteral stones accompanied with obstructive pyelonephritis without preoperative drainage.

We retrospectively reviewed 21 cases of proximal ureteral stones with infected kidney undergoing RLU between July 2013 and September 2016. Stone-induced obstructive infected hydronephrosis was diagnosed using blood and urine tests and imaging modalities. Empirical effective broad spectrum antibiotic therapy was initiated immediately, and then urgent RLU was performed without preoperative drainage. During the surgical procedure, infected urine was also aspirated before stone was removed. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative clinical data were collected.

Operations were performed successfully without open conversion or blood transfusion. The mean operation time was 69.3 ± 12.33 minutes. For all the patients, the level of plasma procalcitonin decreased after RLU. The mean hospital stay duration was 6.4 ± 1.54 days. No septic shock or other severe complications occurred. By discharge, the body temperature and hemogram of each patient returned to normal. A 100% stone-free rate was achieved.

Our study suggests that RLU is a potentially safe and effective method to treat proximal ureteral stones accompanied with obstructive pyelonephritis without any need of preoperative drainage.

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