Influence of Syringe Volume on Foam Stability in Sclerotherapy for Varicose Vein Treatment

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Despite the popularity of sclerotherapy for treating varicose veins, it still exhibits various problems, such as pulmonary embolism, deep-vein thrombosis, phlebitis, and visual disorders.


To investigate syringe volume influence on foam stability, obtain the foam decay rule, and provide a reference for clinics.


Five types of syringes are used to prepare foam at room temperature with various liquid–gas ratios. Foam decay process experiments were performed 5 times and recorded by video. The stability indices used include drainage time, half-life, bubble diameter, bubble surface density, and drainage rate.


The 30 and 2-mL syringes, respectively, recorded the highest and lowest drainage speeds. Foam drainage time and half-life, differences varied between 15 and 70 seconds, and 20 and 100 seconds, respectively. Foam bubble diameters were distributed over 0.1 to 2.0 mm with roughly 200 to 700 bubbles per square centimeter.


Increased syringe volume causes the bubble diameter to increase. Thus, foam dispersion increases and foam half-life decreases; hence, foam becomes unstable. It is, thus, better to use a small syringe several times to prepare foam in clinics using segmented injections.

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