Cleft-Related Orthognathic Surgery Based on Maxillary Vertical Lengthening of the Anterior Facial Height

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Abstract

Background:

The conventional approach during orthognathic surgery for cleft-related deformities has focused largely on restoration of maxilla retrusion, using the maxillary advancement as a standard treatment objective. However, the authors thought that maxillary vertical shortening and deficient incisor show could be additional key elements of cleft-related deformities. Although slight vertical lengthening can be obtained with only maxillary advancement, it would not be enough to obtain satisfactory aesthetic results in terms of the anterior facial height. The authors hypothesized that vertical deficiency and anteroposterior maxillary retrusion exists in cleft-related deformities. Therefore, orthognathic surgery including intentional vertical lengthening and advancement would be better than the conventional simple advancement.

Methods:

A new approach was used to treat consecutive patients with dentofacial deformities between December of 2007 and December of 2016. Patients with cleft-related dentofacial deformities were included in the study.

Results:

Forty-one patients with cleft-related dentofacial deformities were included. The distance from the nasion to the incisor tip was 76.70 mm; the angle of the lines connecting the sella, nasion, and point A was 74.03 degrees; and the incisor show was 1.02 mm. Corresponding measurements in 40 patients without clefts were 81.57 mm, 80.08 degrees, and 3.38 mm, respectively. Postoperatively, the average vertical lengthening achieved was 0.88 mm in the simple maxillary advancement group and 7.65 mm in the intentional vertical lengthening accompanied by maxillary advancement group.

Conclusion:

The authors’ results suggest that simultaneous maxillary vertical lengthening with horizontal advancement is a viable approach to orthognathic surgery for cleft-related deformities, given the long-term stability of outcomes demonstrated in this study.

CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:

Therapeutic, III.

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