Hyperacute Hemodynamic Effects of BiPAP Noninvasive Ventilation in Patients With Acute Heart Failure and Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction in Emergency Department

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Abstract

Background:

Acute heart failure (AHF) is one of the leading causes of admission to emergency department (ED); severe hypoxemic AHF may be treated with noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Despite the demonstrated clinical efficacy of NIV in relieving symptoms of AHF, less is known about the hyperacute effects of bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) ventilation on hemodynamics of patients admitted to ED for AHF. We therefore aimed to assess the effect of BiPAP ventilation on principal hemodynamic, respiratory, pulse oximetry, and microcirculation indexes in patients admitted to ED for AHF, needing NIV.

Methods:

Twenty consecutive patients admitted to ED for AHF and left ventricular systolic dysfunction, needing NIV, were enrolled in the study; all patients were treated with NIV in BiPAP mode. The following parameters were measured at admission to ED (T0, baseline before treatment), 3 hours after admission and initiation of BiPAP NIV (T1), and after 6 hours (T2): arterial blood oxygenation (pH, partial pressure of oxygen in the alveoli/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio, PaCO 2, lactate concentration, HCO3−), hemodynamics (tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, transpulmonary gradient, transaortic gradient, inferior vena cava diameter, brain natriuretic peptide [BNP] levels), microcirculation perfusion (end-tidal CO2 [ETCO 2], peripheral venous oxygen saturation [SpvO2]).

Results:

All evaluated indexes significantly improved over time (analysis of variance, P < .001 in quite all cases.).

Conclusions:

The BiPAP NIV may rapidly ameliorate several hemodynamic, arterial blood gas, and microcirculation indexes in patients with AHF and left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

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