Constitutive activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is found in ˜ 50-70% of AML patients. The SH2-containing inositol 5-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) is a negative regulator of PI3K/AKT signaling in hematopoietic cells. SHIP1 knockout mice develop a myeloproliferative syndrome and concomitant deletion of SHIP1 and the tumor suppressor PTEN leads to the development of lethal B-cell lymphomas. In the study presented here, we investigated the role of SHIP1 as a tumor suppressor in myeloid leukemia cells in an in vivo xenograft transplantation model. NSG Mice transplanted with UKE-1 cells derived from a secondary AML showed a significantly extended lifespan after lentiviral-mediated overexpression of SHIP1 in comparison to the vector control cohort. In contrast, the AML-derived SHIP1Y643H mutant, which has a strongly reduced enzymatic activity showed a significant reversion of the SHIP1-induced prolongation of the survival time. In addition, the analysis of 290 AML patients revealed a correlation between expression of SHIP1 and overall survival of the AML patients. These results indicate that SHIP1 can act as a tumor suppressor in acute myeloid leukemia cells and that higher SHIP1 expression is associated with prolonged overall survival in AML patients. SHIP1 may be an interesting candidate for gene therapy.