Alkaline Phosphatase in Infant Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Kinetics and Relationship to Organ Injury and Major Cardiovascular Events

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To determine the kinetics of alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and concentration after infant cardiopulmonary bypass, including isoform-specific changes, and to measure the association between postoperative AP activity and major postoperative cardiovascular events, organ injury/dysfunction, and postoperative support requirements

Study design

Prospective cohort study of 120 infants ≤120 days of age undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. AP total and isoform-specific activity was assessed at 6 time points (preoperation, rewarming, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours postoperation). Low AP activity was defined as ≤80 U/L. AP concentrations and biomarkers of organ injury/dysfunction were collected through 24 hours postoperation. Major cardiovascular events were defined as cardiac arrest, mechanical circulatory support, or death.


AP activity loss occurred primarily during the operation (median decrease 89 U/L; P < .0001) secondary to decreased bone and liver 2 isoforms. Activity declined through 24 hours in 27% of patients. AP activity strongly correlated with serum concentration (r = 0.87-0.91; P < .0001). Persistent low AP activity at 72 hours was associated independently with occurrence of a major cardiac event (OR 5.6; P < .05). Early AP activity was associated independently with subsequent vasoactive-inotropic score (P < .001), peak lactate (P < .0001), peak creatinine (P < .0005), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (P < .05), and intestinal fatty acid binding protein (P < .005).


AP activity decreases during infant cardiopulmonary bypass and may continue to decrease for 24 hours. Activity loss is secondary to decreased bone and liver 2 isoform concentrations. Early low AP activity is associated independently with subsequent postoperative support and organ injury/dysfunction, and persistence of AP activity ≤80 U/L at 72 hours is associated independently with increased odds of major cardiovascular events.

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