This study aimed to determine whether the addition of intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) improves outcome in patients with cervical cancer and poor prognostic factors. Patients with stage IB to IIA cervical cancer who had undergone radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy between August 2008 and December 2014 were retrospectively registered in this study. All patients received external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) + chemotherapy, and some patients additionally received ICBT. EBRT consisted of 45 to 50.4 Gy delivered to the standard pelvic field in 25 to 28 fractions. Chemotherapy consisted of 2 to 4 courses of weekly cisplatin-based treatment. ICBT was delivered in 1 to 3 insertions. Ninety-seven of 163 patients received CRT, and 66 patients additionally received ICBT. During a median follow-up period of 33 months, recurrence was detected in 38 patients. The 3-year locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates did not differ significantly between patients who did and did not receive ICBT. In subgroup analyses, fewer recurrences were seen in patients with at least 1 high-risk factor who received ICBT than in those who did not, with a significant (62%) reduction in the risk of progression or death (hazard ratio 0.384, 95% confidence interval 0.151–0.978, P = .045). The difference in OS between the CRT and CRT + ICBT subgroups was marginal (P = .064). The addition of ICBT to CRT after radical surgery significantly improves LRC and DFS rates in women with cervical cancer and at least 1 high-risk factor.