Open repair of intraoperative popliteal artery injury during total knee arthroplasty in a patient with severe hemophilia A: A case report and literature review

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Abstract

Rationale:

Arterial injuries during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) though rare may occur. Hemophilia may further challenge the management of such injury.

Patient concerns:

A 48-year-old male patient with severe hemophilia type A and stiff knee arthropathy underwent bilateral TKAs. Left popliteal artery injury was detected at the end of the left TKA.

Diagnoses:

Urgent angiography confirmed the diagnosis of the left popliteal artery transection.

Interventions:

With clotting factor VIII replacement treatment, open repair was performed by end-to-end vascular bypass with the autograft of the large saphenous vein. No anticoagulant and antiplatelet treatment was administered postoperatively. Doses of the factor VIII were decreased step by step postoperatively.

Outcomes:

Left lower limb was reperfused 4 hours after the onset of the ischemia. The patient recovered uneventfully. Postoperative Doppler examination showed the left popliteal artery remained patent.

Lessons:

The hemophilia may endanger the patients to higher risk of arterial injury during TKA because of the severe deformity and fibrosis around knee joint. For the hemophilia patients, with rational coagulation factor replacement therapy, open repair with autograft was an effective revascularization procedure for artery injury.

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