The relationship of lung cancer with menstrual and reproductive factors may be influenced by passive smoking, cooking oil fumes, and tea intake: A case–control study in Chinese women
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of menstrual and reproductive factors with risk of lung cancer in women. Potential etiological clues related to lung cancer in women are identified to inform preventive strategies.
Case–control study of 477 newly diagnosed women with lung cancer and 479 age-matched (±2 years) controls. Data on menstrual and reproductive factors and history of oral contraceptive use were obtained on personal interviews using a structured questionnaire. Risk factors were analyzed by unconditional logistic regression analysis.
Maternal age ≥25 years at first birth appeared to protect against female lung cancer [odds ratios (ORs): 0.511, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.376–0.693]. Age at menopause > 50 years and use of contraceptives was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in women (OR: 1.471, 95% CI, 1.021–2.119 and OR: 1.844, 95% CI: 1.111–3.061, respectively). Age ≥13 years at menarche was associated with a decreased risk of lung adenocarcinoma (OR: 0.563, 95% CI, 0.317–0.997). There was significant heterogeneity in the levels of cooking oil fume (COF) exposure (Pheterogeneity = .015). Higher levels of exposure to passive smoking, COF, and lack of tea intake were associated with an increased risk of lung cancer.
Menstrual and reproductive factors are considered to play a role in the development of lung cancer in women. Exposure to passive smoking, COF, and lack of tea intake appeared to significantly modify the relationship.