Pseudoaneurysms remain a significant complication after vascular procedures. We hypothesized that TGF-β (transforming growth factor-β) signaling plays a mechanistic role in the development of pseudoaneurysms.Approach and Results—
Rat aortic pericardial patch angioplasty was associated with a high incidence (88%) of pseudoaneurysms at 30 days, with increased smad2 phosphorylation in small pseudoaneurysms but not in large pseudoaneurysms; TGF-β1 receptors were increased in small pseudoaneurysms and preserved in large pseudoaneurysms. Delivery of TGF-β1 via nanoparticles covalently bonded to the patch stimulated smad2 phosphorylation both in vitro and in vivo and significantly decreased pseudoaneurysm formation (6.7%). Inhibition of TGF-β1 signaling with SB431542 decreased smad2 phosphorylation both in vitro and in vivo and significantly induced pseudoaneurysm formation by day 7 (66.7%).Conclusions—
Normal healing after aortic patch angioplasty is associated with increased TGF-β1 signaling, and recruitment of smad2 signaling may limit pseudoaneurysm formation; loss of TGF-β1 signaling is associated with the formation of large pseudoaneurysms. Enhancement of TGF-β1 signaling may be a potential mechanism to limit pseudoaneurysm formation after vascular intervention.