Alpha tocopherol loaded chitosan oleate nanoemulsions for wound healing. Evaluation on cell lines and ex vivo human biopsies, and stabilization in spray dried Trojan microparticles
An amphiphilic chitosan salt, chitosan oleate (CS-OA), was previously proposed for the physical stabilization of lemongrass antimicrobial nanoemulsions (NE) through a mild spontaneous emulsification process. As both chitosan and oleic acid are described in the literature for their positive effects in wound healing, in the present study CS-OA has been proposed to encapsulate alpha tocopherol (αTph) in NEs aimed to skin wounds. A NE formulation was developed showing about 220 nm dimensions, 36% drug loading, and αTph concentration up to 1 mg/ml.
Both CS-OA and αTph NE stimulated cell proliferation on keratinocytes and fibroblast cell cultures, and in ex vivo skin biopsies, suggesting the suitability of CS-OA and of the antioxidant agent for topical application in wound healing.
αTph stability was further improved with respect of encapsulation, by spray drying the NE into a powder (up to about 90% αTph residual after 3 months). The spray drying process was optimized, to improve powder yield and αTph recovery, by a design of experiments approach. The powder obtained was easily re-suspended to deliver the NE and resulted able to completely release αTph.