Severe trauma initiates a systemic inflammatory cascade and that involves early activation of complement and cleavage of C5 into C5a (anaphylatoxin) and C5b (C5b-9 membrane attack complex). We examined activation of C5 in non-human primate (NHP) models of hemorrhagic shock.
Blood plasma concentrations of C5b-9 were significantly increased in NHPs in response to hemorrhage alone and were further increased with the addition of tissue trauma. The onset of increased C5 cleavage was accelerated in NHPs that experienced decompensated poly-traumatic hemorrhagic shock. Next, to identify an effective inhibitor of NHP C5 cleavage in vitro, as a first step in the development of a potential therapy, three inhibitors of human C5 cleavage and hemolysis were tested in vitro. NHP C5 cleavage and complement-mediated hemolysis were successfully inhibited by pre-treatment of serum samples with a small, inhibitory peptide RA101348. Commercially-available C5 inhibitory antibodies were found to exhibit species-specific efficacy in vitro. Quidel's A217 antibody demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of C5 cleavage and hemolysis in NHP samples, whereas LGM-Eculizumab only inhibited complement-mediated hemolysis in human samples.
This study shows that complement activation in NHPs following experimental poly-traumatic hemorrhagic shock is consistent with clinical reports, and that cleavage of C5 and complement-mediated hemolysis can be effectively inhibited in vitro using a small peptide inhibitor. Taken together, these findings offer a clinically-relevant vehicle and a potential strategy for treatment of hemorrhagic shock with poly-traumatic injury.