β-Thalassemia patients develop deficiency in vitamin D absorption and liver hydroxylation, resulting in extremely low calcitriol levels. We explored the role of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in vitamin D metabolism, transport and activity on deferasirox pharmacokinetics and outcomes (effectiveness trough levels (Ctrough) and the area under the curve (AUC) cutoffs of 20 μgml - 1 and 360 μgml - 1 h- 1, respectively; nonresponse AUC limit of 250 μgml - 1 h- 1). Ninety-nine β-thalassemic patients were enrolled. Drug plasma Ctrough and AUC were measured by the high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled with an ultraviolet determination method. Allelic discrimination for VDR, CYP24A1, CYP27B1 and GC gene SNPs was performed by real-time PCR. CYP24A1 22776 TT significantly influenced Cmin and negatively predicted it in regression analysis. CYP24A1 3999 CC was associated with Ctrough and Cmin and was a negative predictor of Tmax, whereas CYP24A1 8620 GG seemed to have a role in Ctrough, AUC, t1/2 and Cmin, and was an AUC negative predictor factor. Considering treatment outcome, Cdx2 and GC 1296 were retained in regression analysis as AUC efficacy cutoff negative predictors.