Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated priming of toll-like receptor 4 enhances oxidant-induced prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis in primary murine macrophages☆
Agonists and pseudo-agonists for toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are common in our environment. Thus, human exposure to these agents may result in “priming or sensitization” of TLR4. A body of evidence suggests that LPS-mediated sensitization of TLR4 can increase the magnitude of responses to exogenous agents in multiple tissues. We have previously shown that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) stimulate TLR4. There is no evidence that LPS-primed TLR4 can influence the magnitude of responses to oxidants from either endogenous or exogenous sources. In the present study, we directly tested the hypothesis that LPS-primed TLR4 will sensitize primary murine peritoneal macrophages (pM) to oxidant-mediated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. We used potassium peroxychromate (PPC) and potassium peroxynitrite (PPN) as direct in vitro sources of exogenous RONS. Our results showed that a direct treatment with PPC or PPN alone as sources of exogenous oxidants had a limited effect on PGE2 biosynthesis. In contrast, pM sensitized by prior incubation with LPS-EK, a TLR4-specific agonist, followed by oxidant stimulation exhibited increased transcriptional and translational expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) with enhanced PGE2 biosynthesis/production only in pM derived from TLR4-WT mice but not in TLR4-KO mice. Thus, we have shown a critical role for LPS-primed TLR4 in oxidant-induced inflammatory phenotypes that have the potential to initiate, propagate and maintain many human diseases.