A Two-State Model of Tree Evolution and Its Applications toAluRetrotransposition
Models of tree evolution have mostly focused on capturing the cladogenesis processes behind speciation. Processes that derive the evolution of genomic elements, such as repeats, are not necessarily captured by these existing models. In this article, we design a model of tree evolution that we call the dual-birth model, and we show how it can be useful in studying the evolution of short Alu repeats found in the human genome in abundance. The dual-birth model extends the traditional birth-only model to have two rates of propagation, one for active nodes that propagate often, and another for inactive nodes, that with a lower rate, activate and start propagating. Adjusting the ratio of the rates controls the expected tree balance. We present several theoretical results under the dual-birth model, introduce parameter estimation techniques, and study the properties of the model in simulations. We then use the dual-birth model to estimate the number of active Alu elements and their rates of propagation and activation in the human genome based on a large phylogenetic tree that we build from close to one million Alu sequences.