Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) typically improves following strabismus surgery. Nevertheless, for some patients, HRQOL does not improve, and reasons for this are unknown.Objective
To identify factors associated with failure of adult strabismus–20 (AS-20) HRQOL scores to improve following strabismus surgery.Design, Setting, and Participants
Prospective observational case series at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, comprising 276 adults, between July 2012 and August 2016.Main Outcomes and Measures
Participants completed the AS-20 HRQOL questionnaire, diplopia questionnaire, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale–Revised (CESD-R) (depressive symptoms), and Type-D Scale 14 questionnaire (type-Distressed [type-D] personality) both preoperatively and 6 weeks postoperatively. To assess factors associated with failure of HRQOL to improve (no change or decrease in score), univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Each of the 4 AS-20 domains (self-perception, interactions, reading function, and general function) were analyzed separately including only patients able to improve at least by the magnitude of previously defined 95% limits of agreement. Factors assessed were age (at onset and at surgery), sex, number of previous surgeries, presence of visually obtrusive facial anomaly, visual acuity, preoperative and postoperative diplopia questionnaire scores, alignment (as a vector), presence of esotropia, presence of a vertical deviation, CESD-R scores, and type-D personality. Stepwise multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to assess factors associated with failure of AS-20 scores to improve for each domain.Results
Of the 276 participants, the median age was 57 years (range, 18-91 years), 153 were women (55%), and 266 were white (96%). Failure to improve was associated with worse diplopia postoperatively on the self-perception (adjusted risk ratio [RR], 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.02), reading function (adjusted RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03), and general function domains (adjusted RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03). In addition, failure to improve on the self-perception domain was associated with type-D personality postoperatively (adjusted RR, 4.26; 95% CI, 1.90-9.57) and failure to improve on the interactions domain was associated with postoperative depressive symptoms (adjusted RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06) and coexisting visually obtrusive anomaly (adjusted RR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.04-4.32).Conclusions and Relevance
Postoperative diplopia, depressive symptoms, type-D personality, and visually obtrusive facial anomalies were associated with failure of AS-20 scores to improve (remaining the same or worsening) following strabismus surgery. The association of nonstrabismus factors may have implications for patient treatment and is worthy of continued study.