Phenotypic and functional characterization of porcine bone marrow monocyte subsets
Monocytes comprise several subsets with distinct phenotypes and functional capacities. Based on CD163 expression, two major monocyte subsets can be discriminated in the porcine bone marrow. The CD163+ cells expressed higher levels of SLA-DR, Siglec-1, CD11R1 and CD16 when compared to CD163- monocytes, whereas no remarkable differences were observed in the expression of other markers analyzed. Gene expression analysis showed differential expression of several chemokine receptor and TLR genes. Both subsets phagocytosed microspheres with similar efficiency. However, CD163- cells tended to produce higher levels of ROS in response to PMA, whereas CD163+ cells were more efficient in endocytosing and processing antigens (DQ-OVA). CD163- monocytes produced higher levels of TNF-α and IL-10 than CD163+ cells when stimulated with LPS or Imiquimod. Both subsets produced similar amounts of IL-8 in response to LPS; however, CD163+ cells produced more IL-8 after Imiquimod stimulation. Whether these subsets represent different developmental stages, and how are they related remain to be investigated.