Subcellular localisation of the stem cell markers OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, KLF4 and c-MYC in cancer: a review
The stem cell markers octamer-binding transcription factor 4, sex-determining region Y-box 2, NANOG, Kruppel-like factor 4 and c-MYC are key factors in inducing pluripotency in somatic cells, and they have been used to detect cancer stem cell subpopulations in a range of cancer types. Recent literature has described the subcellular localisation of these markers and their potential implications on cellular function. This is a relatively complex and unexplored area of research, and the extent of the effect that subcellular localisation has on cancer development and growth is largely unknown. This review analyses this area of research in the context of the biology of stem cells and cancer and explores the potential modulating effect of subcellular localisation of these proteins as supported by the literature.