Adverse events of Dupilumab in adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis: A meta-analysis

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Abstract

Background

Dupilumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody against interleukin-4 receptor alpha, inhibits the signals of interleukin-4 and interleukin-13, and has also shown significant efficacy in patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD), while the effect of it on adverse events remains controversial.

Objective

To assess the influence of dupilumab on adverse events in adults with moderate-to-severe AD.

Method

Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared dupilumab with a placebo for patients with moderate-to-severe AD were searched in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane databases. The outcome of the study was the incidence of adverse events during the observation period.

Results

Eight RCTs were analysed in this study. Meta-analysis showed that patients treated with dupilumab had a lower risk of skin infection (risk ratio [RR] 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42–0.69) and exacerbation of AD (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.34–0.59), but had a higher risk of injection-site reaction (RR 2.24, 95% CI 1.68–2.99), headache (RR 1.47, 95% CI 1.05–2.06), and conjunctivitis (RR 2.64, 95% CI 1.79–3.89) than did patients treated with a placebo. Nasopharyngitis, urinary tract infection, upper respiratory tract infection, and herpes virus infection were found balanced in dupilumab groups and placebo groups.

Conclusion

Dupilumab moderately reduced the risk of skin infection and the exacerbation of AD, slightly increased the risk of headache, and moderately increased the risk of injection-site reaction and conjunctivitis, but had little effect on other infections in adults with moderate-to-severe AD.

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