Transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) has evolved over the past decade fueled by advances in minimally invasive surgery. The technique aims to overcome the constraints posed by a narrow rigid pelvis and poor TME visualization that are encountered during “top-down” rectal surgery. A more accurate pelvic dissection should subsequently result in safer oncological resections and better preservation of pelvic autonomic nerves. taTME is an advanced complex technique that requires dedicated training and experience in TME surgery. Initial results from small cohorts are promising and confirmation by randomized controlled trials is eagerly awaited.