Abdominoperineal Excision: Technical Challenges in Optimal Surgical and Oncological Outcomes after Abdominoperineal Excision for Rectal Cancer
Treatment results in rectal cancer have improved significantly during the recent two decades, but local control and survival after abdominoperineal excision (APE) have not improved to the same degree as that seen after anterior resection (AR). The reason for this is an increased risk of inadvertent bowel perforations and tumor involved margins after APE as compared with AR. The conventional synchronous combined APE has not been a standardized procedure and consequently oncological outcomes have varied considerably between different institutions and in different reports. With the new concept of APE, based on well-defined anatomical structures, the procedure can be categorized as intersphincteric APE, extralevator APE, and ischioanal APE. This article discusses the technical aspects and results from this approach.