Clinicopathologic and Molecular Characteristics of Mesonephric Adenocarcinoma Arising From the Uterine Body

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Abstract

Mesonephric adenocarcinoma (MNAC) is a rare tumor of the female genital tract mainly occurring in the uterine cervix. To date, only a few cases of MNAC arising from of the uterine body (UB-MNAC) have been reported. The clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics of UB-MNAC remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the clinical, histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and genetic features of UB-MNAC. In total, 11 cases were included. Six patients developed metastatic disease, most commonly in lungs (5/6). Histopathologically, UB-MNAC was characterized by an admixture of tubular, glandular, papillary, retiform, glomeruloid, sex cord-like, and comedonecrosis-like architectural patterns. Three adverse pathologic characteristics, including advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, high mitotic activity, and presence of lymphovascular the invasion, were independent factors predicting the development of metastasis. All cases were positive for GATA-binding protein 3 and paired box 2 expression and showed wild-type p53, patchy p16, and preserved PTEN expression, as indicated by immunohistochemistry. Next-generation sequencing using 12 samples (11 primary tumors and 1 metastatic tumor) revealed 42 single nucleotide variations in 16 genes, mostly in KRAS (10/12) and ARID1A (9/12). Copy number variation was found in 16 genomic regions, and consisted of 57 gains and 10 losses, with 1q gain (11/12) being the most prevalent. In conclusion, UB-MNAC displays an aggressive biological behavior, with a tendency to metastasize to the lungs. Adverse pathologic characteristics reflect the aggressive nature of UB-MNAC. Distinct molecular features of UB-MNAC include frequent somatic mutations of KRAS and ARID1A and gain of 1q.

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