Cleidocranial Dysplasia: A Review of Clinical, Radiological, Genetic Implications and a Guidelines Proposal

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Abstract

In this review, we aimed to depict the clinical, radiological, and genetic features of cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) and to suggest management guidelines, based on our experience of 8 cases, with an emphasis given to dental complications.

The most common craniofacial features of CCD that stand out are a patency of the anterior fontanelle, an inverted pear-shaped calvaria, a hypertelorism, a general midface retrusion, and a mandible prognathism, associated with an excessive mobility of the shoulders, a short stature, and teeth abnormalities such as supernumerary teeth and failure of eruption, in particular. RUNX2 is the only gene in which mutation is known to cause CCD, but mutations are detected in only 65% of all patients with a clinical diagnosis of CCD. Panoramic radiography is a valuable adjunct in confirming the diagnosis of CCD.

Our experience allowed us to conclude that orthodontically aided eruption should always be attempted. However, to stabilize the occlusion and to improve facial esthetics, we recommend associated orthognathic surgery. When orthodontic treatment is partially efficient, prosthetic treatment options bring satisfactory results, in terms of occlusion. Nevertheless, when orthodontic treatment fails, we recommend to preserve as many native teeth as possible, and to combine orthognathic preprosthetic surgery and implant-supported prosthesis.

In any case, an individualized treatment protocol, depending on the needs and demand of the patient, the age at diagnosis and social and economic circumstances, should be put forward.

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