PerftoranTM, which has been re-branded as VidaphorTMfor marketing in North America, is an emulsion of perfluorocarbons in a surfactant and electrolyte mixture. It was developed in Russia as an oxygen-carrying intravenous plasma additive for hemorrhagic anemia and ischemic conditions from various etiologies. It was approved for clinical use in Russia in 1996 and used by the Russian Armed Forces and in civilian medical care. It was also approved in Mexico from 2005 to 2010. It has been reportedly administered to over 35,000 patients with significant evidence of benefit and relatively mild and manageable adverse effects. It may have significant potential for use in hemorrhagic shock if human red blood cells are not available, and for several other applications including treatment of vascular gas embolism, cerebral or spinal trauma, and regional ischemia. It is different from other perfluorocarbon preparations under development in the USA in that is uses a different primary perfluorocarbon (perfluorodecalin) and a surfactant (Proxanol 268) instead of egg-yok phospholipid as the emulsion vehicle. Perftoran has a much smaller particle size resulting in milder adverse effects. It has been safely administered to more patients than any oxygen carrier currently under development. A newly formed United States Corporation (FluorO2 Therapeutics, Inc.) intends to manufacture the product in the United States under GMP standards and make it available for clinical use in Mexico and Latin America and pursue research to support eventual approval in the USA for human and veterinary use. This article will briefly review key information about this product and provide references for the interested reader.