EVALUATION OF OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME AS A RISK FACTOR FOR DIABETIC MACULAR EDEMA IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE II DIABETES
To evaluate the association between obstructive sleep apnea and diabetic macular edema (DME) in patients with Type II diabetes, using the apnea–hypopnea index and other nocturnal hypoxemia parameters.Methods:
This cross-sectional, case–control study included 99 patients with Type II diabetes: the first group included patients with DME (DME+ group) and the second patients without DME (DME− group). Polysomnography was performed in all patients. The two groups were compared, and the risk factors were studied using logistic regression.Results:
The DME+ group comprised 38 patients, and the DME− group comprised 61 patients, aged a mean 68.8 years and 66.3 years (P = 0.27), respectively; mean body mass index was 29.7 and 30.9 (P = 0.16), respectively. The mean apnea–hypopnea index was significantly higher in the DME+ group (43.95 [13.5–87.3]) than in the DME− group (35.18 [3.55–90.7]) (P = 0.034). Patients with DME had more severe obstructive sleep apnea (apnea–hypopnea index >30) than the others: 71% versus 50.8% (P = 0.049). Cumulative time of SPO2 below 90% (CT90%) was independently associated with DME after adjusting for confounding factors, whereas there was no difference between the oxygen desaturation index and minimum O2 saturation.Conclusion:
Severe obstructive sleep apnea (apnea–hypopnea index >30) and parameters of nocturnal hypoxemia (cumulative time of SPO2 below 90%) are associated with DME.