Food allergy: Update on prevention and tolerance

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Abstract

Of the many possible hypotheses that explain the recent increase in childhood food allergy (FA), the dual-allergen exposure hypothesis has been the most extensively investigated. This chapter serves as a review and update on the prevention of FA and focuses on recently published randomized controlled trials exploring the efficacy of oral tolerance induction in infancy for the prevention of FA. As a result of these RCTs, National Institutes of Health recommendations now actively encourage the early introduction of peanut for the prevention of peanut allergy, and other countries/settings recommend the inclusion of potential common food allergens, including peanut and egg, in complementary feeding regimens commencing at approximately 6 months but not before 4 months of age. Further studies that explore the efficacy of oral tolerance induction to other common food allergens and that focus on optimal timing, duration, and adherence are required.

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