Numerical and Experimental Evaluation of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound–Induced Lesions in Liver Tissue Ex Vivo

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Recent advances in the field of acoustics and piezoelectric and ultrasound transducers have led to new approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of certain diseases. One method of treatment with ultrasonic waves is high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment, which is a thermal therapeutic method used to treat malignant tumors. Although a variety of treatment-planning strategies using ultrasonic waves have been investigated, little clinical success has been achieved. Computational modeling is a powerful tool for predicting device performance.


The heating induced by a concave transducer with operating powers of 85 and 135 W was studied, and the experimental results presented in this article verify its applicability. Numerical simulations of the nonlinear acoustic field were performed by using the Westervelt and Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov equations. Heat transfer was measured for the 2 operational powers, and the results were compared with ex vivo experimental results. In addition, thermal dose contours for both the simulation and experimental results were calculated to investigate the ablated area.


Good agreement was found between the experimental and numerical results. The results show that the average temperature deviations calculated at the focal point were 12.8% and 4.3% for transducer powers of 85 and 135 W, respectively.


This study provides guidance to HIFU practitioners in determining lesion size and identifying nonlinear effects that should be considered in HIFU procedures.

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