Pulmonary disease in HIV-infected adults in the era of antiretroviral therapy
HIV in the antiretroviral therapy era is characterized by multimorbidity and the frequent occurrence of HIV-associated non-AIDS chronic health conditions. Respiratory symptoms and chronic pulmonary diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and cardiopulmonary dysfunction, are among the conditions that may present in persons living with HIV. Tobacco smoking, which is disproportionately high among persons living HIV, strongly contributes to the risk of pulmonary disease. Additionally, features associated with and at times unique to HIV, including persistent inflammation, immune cell activation, oxidative stress, and dysbiosis, may also contribute. This review summarizes the available literature regarding epidemiology of and risk factors for respiratory symptoms and chronic pulmonary disease in the current era.