Trend and Demographic Characteristics of Maxillofacial Fractures in Level I Trauma Center

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Abstract

Aim:

The aim of this study was to analyze the pattern and treatment of craniomaxillofacial injuries in the northern part of Israel, within a Jewish majority and large Arab minority population.

Patients and Methods:

A 5-year retrospective study evaluated patients treated for craniomaxillofacial fractures. Fracture cause, type, site, and patient demographics were evaluated.

Results:

Patient age ranged from 1 to 94 years with an average age of 36.7 years; 52% of the victims were Jews and 48% Arabs. There was male predilection in both sectors (78.3% vs 21.7%). The main site of injury was the zygomatic bone (33.5%) followed by nasal bone, orbital, mandible, frontal sinus, and maxillary fractures. The main etiology of injuries was falls (45.4%) with significantly more falls reported by females (52.1% vs 43.2% in males). Motor vehicle accidents caused injuries more frequent in males. Arabs experienced CMF fractures at a younger age compared to Jews (27.8 and 44.8 average age, respectively). In the elderly, the trend reversed where Jews were more prone to craniomaxillofacial fractures.

Conclusions:

Compared to their weight in the population, the Arab sector experiences more craniomaxillofacial injuries. The Jewish elderly population tends to reside in nursing homes where they are more susceptible to accidental falls, whereas young Arab males are more exposed to motor vehicle accidents and interpersonal violence. Falls were the main cause of injuries particularly in women. This may reflect the women's fear of reporting domestic violence. We believe that increased government investments in infrastructures and education will lower the incidence of craniomaxillofacial trauma and balance the gap between both sectors and sexes.

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