Repair of the Malpositioned Lower Lid
Complications from surgical approaches to the orbit can be associated with debilitating morbidity and negative surgical outcomes. The surgeon must be familiar with the different factors that predispose a patient to these complications and be facile with techniques to avoid them. In this article, the authors discuss the surgical anatomy of the lower eyelid, as well as various complications that result from eyelid surgery, including lower lid retraction, ectropion, entropion, canthal malposition, and midface descent. They also discuss various management techniques that are employed in addressing these complications.