Secondary Repair of Posttraumatic Enophthalmos and Extraocular Movement Disorders
Enophthalmos, or recession of the eye posteriorly and inferiorly, is a potential sequela of orbital trauma and a source of significant cosmetic and functional concern. Late enophthalmos occurs when early reconstruction of the bony orbit fails to completely restore normal orbital shape and volume, resulting in aesthetic deformity and persistent diplopia. In this article, we provide a framework for evaluation of posttraumatic enophthalmos and outline the surgical principles of secondary repair necessary to optimize globe position. With implementation of proper craniofacial exposure, osteotomy, and orbital reconstruction, surgeons may achieve significant improvement in both the aesthetic and functional sequelae of enophthalmos.