Poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic acid) for enhancement of solubility, oral bioavailability and anti-osteoporotic effects of raloxifene hydrochloride
Raloxifene HCl (RH) has poor water solubility and due to its extensive first pass metabolism; its bioavailability is only 2%. The purpose of the present study was to enhance the aqueous solubility, oral bioavailability and anti-osteoporotic effects of RH by electro-sprayed nanoparticles (NPs) in ovariectomized rats. NPs containing RH and different ratio of poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic acid) (PMVEMA) were electrosprayed. The voltage, distance of needle to the collector, flow rate of the solution and polymeric percentage were optimized according to the size of NPs and drug solubility. The optimized formulation was characterized by SEM, XRD, DSC, and FTIR. The pharmacokinetic parameters were studies by oral administration of a single dose of 15 mg/kg in Wistar rats. The anti-osteoporotic effects were studied in female ovariectomized rats. Animals were treated with 6 mg/kg/day for 2 months then serum calcium, phosphorous and alkaline phosphatase levels were measured. RH loaded electrosprayed NPs showed 10-fold enhanced solubility compared to the free drug. Moreover, the XRD and SEM tests displayed an amorphous state of drug in the NPs. FTIR and DSC tests revealed no interaction between the polymer and the drug. Serum calcium, phosphorous and alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly decreased in ovariectomized rats receiving oral RH NPs (P < 0.05). No significant difference was detected between RH NPs and estradiol groups (P > 0.05). Oral bioavailability of NPs showed 7.5-fold increase compared to the pure drug. The electrosprayed PMVEMA nanoparticles can enhance solubility, bioavailability and antiosteoporotic effects of RH.