Outcomes of Dental Implant Therapy in Patients With Down Syndrome: A Systematic Review

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Abstract

Objectives

Patients with Down syndrome (DS) require an earlier and more frequent tooth replacement than rest of the population. The objective of this systematic review is to critically analyze and summarize studies to ascertain the outcomes and survival of dental implants placed in jaws of DS patients.

Methods

Using the key words “dental implants,” “Down syndrome,” and “prosthodontics,” an electronic search was conducted via PubMed/MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, Embase, and Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases by 2 authors, S.N. and Z.K., independently. Retrieved studies were screened against the predefined exclusion and inclusion criteria. To estimate the risk of bias, quality assessment of included studies was carried using the ‘Case Reports (CARE) guidelines’.

Results

Primary search resulted in 156 studies. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria and reporting a total of 81 dental implants placed in 36 DS patients. The type of implant loading ranged from immediate to a delay of 1 year after placement of the implant. Implant diameter ranged from 3.3 to 4.5 mm, and height ranged from 8.5 to 18 mm. The follow-up ranged from 1 to 6 years. Of 81 implants placed, 21 implants (26%) were reported as failed.

Conclusions

Patients with DS have a higher risk of implant failure. However, the reason for the failure is not very well understood. Although case reports and case series suggest that implant survival is diminished in DS patients, large-scale randomized controlled trials are required to determine the exact mechanism associated with risks of implant failure.

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