Crosstalk between autophagy and oxidative stress regulates proteolysis in the diaphragm during mechanical ventilation
Mechanical ventilation (MV) results in the rapid development of ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction (VIDD). While the mechanisms responsible for VIDD are not fully understood, recent data reveal that prolonged MV activates autophagy in the diaphragm, which may occur as a result of increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that (1) accelerated autophagy is a key contributor to VIDD; and that (2) oxidative stress is required to increase the expression of autophagy genes in the diaphragm. Our findings reveal that targeted inhibition of autophagy in the rat diaphragm prevented MV-induced muscle atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Attenuation of VIDD in these animals occurred as a result of increased diaphragm concentration of the antioxidant catalase and reduced mitochondrial ROS emission, which corresponded to reductions in the activity of calpain and caspase-3. To determine if increased ROS production is required for the upregulation of autophagy biomarkers in the diaphragm, rats that were administered the mitochondrial-targeted peptide SS-31 during MV. Results from this study demonstrated that mitochondrial ROS production in the diaphragm during MV is required for the increased expression of key autophagy genes (i.e. LC3, Atg7, Atg12, Beclin1 and p62), as well as for increased activity of cathepsin L. Together, these data reveal that autophagy is required for VIDD, and that autophagy inhibition reduces MV-induced diaphragm ROS production and prevents a positive feedback loop whereby increased autophagy is stimulated by oxidative stress, resulting in further increases in ROS and autophagy.