A real-time and registration-free framework for dynamic shape instantiation
Real-time 3D navigation during minimally invasive procedures is an essential yet challenging task, especially when considerable tissue motion is involved. To balance image acquisition speed and resolution, only 2D images or low-resolution 3D volumes can be used clinically. In this paper, a real-time and registration-free framework for dynamic shape instantiation, generalizable to multiple anatomical applications, is proposed to instantiate high-resolution 3D shapes of an organ from a single 2D image intra-operatively. Firstly, an approximate optimal scan plane was determined by analyzing the pre-operative 3D statistical shape model (SSM) of the anatomy with sparse principal component analysis (SPCA) and considering practical constraints. Secondly, kernel partial least squares regression (KPLSR) was used to learn the relationship between the pre-operative 3D SSM and a synchronized 2D SSM constructed from 2D images obtained at the approximate optimal scan plane. Finally, the derived relationship was applied to the new intra-operative 2D image obtained at the same scan plane to predict the high-resolution 3D shape intra-operatively. A major feature of the proposed framework is that no extra registration between the pre-operative 3D SSM and the synchronized 2D SSM is required. Detailed validation was performed on studies including the liver and right ventricle (RV) of the heart. The derived results (mean accuracy of 2.19 mm on patients and computation speed of 1 ms) demonstrate its potential clinical value for real-time, high-resolution, dynamic and 3D interventional guidance.