Effect of tamoxifen on fibrosis, collagen content and transforming growth factor-β1, -β2 and -β3 expression in common bile duct anastomosis of pigs
End-to-end anastomosis in the treatment for bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been associated with stricture formation. The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate the effect of oral tamoxifen (tmx) treatment on fibrosis, collagen content and transforming growth factor-β1, -β2 and -β3 expression in common bile duct anastomosis of pigs. Twenty-six pigs were divided into three groups [sham (n = 8), control (n = 9) and tmx (n = 9)]. The common bile ducts were transected and anastomosed in the control and tmx groups. Tmx (40 mg/day) was administered orally to the tmx group, and the animals were euthanized after 60 days. Fibrosis was analysed by Masson's trichrome staining. Picrosirius red was used to quantify the total collagen content and collagen type I/III ratio. mRNA expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, -β2 and -β3 was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The control and study groups exhibited higher fibrosis than the sham group, and the study group showed lower fibrosis than the control group (P = 0.011). The control and tmx groups had higher total collagen content than the sham group (P = 0.003). The collagen type I/III ratio was higher in the control group than in the sham and tmx groups (P = 0.015). There were no significant differences in the mRNA expression of TGF-β1, -β2 and -β3 among the groups (P > 0.05). Tmx decreased fibrosis and prevented the change in collagen type I/III ratio caused by the procedure.