Genomic epidemiology of the emerging pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis from native and invasive amphibian species in Chile.
Emerging fungal diseases represent a threat to food security, animal and human health worldwide. Amphibian chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has been associated with catastrophic and well-documented amphibian population declines and extinctions. For the first time, Bd was cultured from native and non-native wild amphibians in Chile. Phylogenomic analyses revealed that Chilean isolates AVS2, AVS4 and AVS7 group within the global panzootic lineage of Bd (BdGPL) in a single highly supported clade that includes a genotype previously isolated from the United Kingdom. Our results extend the known distribution of BdGPL in South America and suggest a single and relatively recent introduction of BdGPL into the country, providing additional support to the role of anthropogenic activity in the global spread of this panzootic lineage.