Relationship between plasma protein S levels and apolipoprotein C-II in Japanese middle-aged obese women and young nonobese women
Protein S, a nonenzymatic cofactor to activated protein C, presents in two forms in plasma, free form and in a complex with C4b-binding protein. The aim of this study was to determine the association of plasma protein S levels with the variables related to cardiovascular disease risk. The relationships between plasma protein S levels with lipids, inflammation markers, and adiposity were first examined on middle-aged obese women (n = 62), then on young nonobese women (n = 160) to verify the findings in the obese women. Total and free protein S antigen levels in middle-aged obese women, approximately half being in a postmenopausal state and suffered from dyslipidemia, correlated negatively with estradiol and positively with triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apoA-II, apoB, apoC-II, apoC-III, apoE, hemoglobin A1c, and protein C, whereas there was no correlation with HDL cholesterol, apoA-I, BMI, visceral fat area, blood pressure, or factor VII activity. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that protein C, apoC-II, and fibrinogen were significant predictors of total protein S antigen levels, accounting for 51.9% of variance, and apoC-II as a singular significant predictor for free protein S antigen levels (12.3% of variance). In young nonobese women, most being normolipidemic, apoC-II was also selected as a significant predictor of total protein S antigen levels, but not of free protein S antigen levels. The positive relationship between plasma protein S levels and apoC-II, a key regulator of triglycerides hydrolysis, may contribute to the pathogenesis of increased concentrations of plasma protein S.