AbstractPurpose of review
Hypertension affects approximately one third of the U.S. population and is the most common preventable medical reason that surgical cases are postponed or cancelled. However, subtypes of hypertension and their perioperative risks are poorly studied and understood. We will review the natural history and pathophysiology of essential hypertension and discuss the perioperative significance of diastolic blood pressure elevation.Recent findings
There is evidence that elevated preoperative diastolic blood pressures are associated with an increased perioperative risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and increased postoperatively 30-day mortality. However, lower preoperative diastolic blood pressures were found, in one study, to be associated with renal injury.Summary
Diastolic hypertension and hypotension both carry perioperative risk. Further study needs to be dedicated to elucidating the risks and developing strategies for acute and chronic management of diastolic blood pressure changes in order to improve perioperative safety.