‘Hot Joints’ infection protocol reduces unnecessary post-operative re-admissions following total hip and knee arthroplasty

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Abstract

Aims

To evaluate the effectiveness of an institutionally developed algorithm for evaluation and diagnosis of prosthetic joint injection and to determine the impact of this protocol on overall hospital re-admissions.p

Patients and Methods

We retrospectively evaluated 2685 total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients prior to (1263) and following (1422) the introduction of an infection detection protocol. The protocol used conservative thresholds for C-reactive protein to direct the medical attendant to aspirate the joint. The protocol incorporated a clear set of laboratory and clinical criteria that allowed a patient to be discharged home if all were met. Patients were included if they presented to our emergency department within 120 days postoperatively with concerns for swelling, pain or infection and were excluded if they had an unambiguous infection or if their chief complaint was non-orthopaedic in nature.

Results

Concern for infection was the single most common (32%) reason for presentation. A total of 296 patients made an emergency visit and were included following THA or TKA. In the preprotocol cohort, 11 of 27 patients were formally re-admitted to the hospital with concern for infection but only five (45%) patients had actual infections and received additional treatment. In comparison, in the post-protocol cohort, 11 patients were admitted for suspected infection, nine (82%) of whom were truly infected (p = 0.04). Sensitivity increased from 83% to 100% and specificity increased from 71% to 96%. Implementation of this protocol did not miss any infections.

Conclusion

A standardised protocol for evaluation of THA and TKA infections significantly reduced unnecessary hospital re-admissions. The protocol was both sensitive and specific and did not compromise quality of care.

Conclusion

Cite this article:Bone Joint J2017;99-B:1603-10.

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