Historical Trends in the Diagnosis of Peduncular Hallucinosis

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Abstract

Background:

Peduncular hallucinosis (PH) describes the clinical syndrome of vivid, dream-like visual hallucinations that intrude on normal wakefulness. Additional clinical deficits, especially ophthalmoparesis, have historically been an important part of the diagnosis and localization of this syndrome. We examined how modern neuroimaging has impacted the diagnosis of PH.

Methods:

We reviewed all available cases of PH, including 3 of ours and all previously reported in the literature. We determined whether other eye movement abnormalities were part of the clinical presentation and whether a neuroimaging study was performed to make the diagnosis.

Results:

A total of 85 cases were identified and evaluated. Eye movement abnormalities were present in 12/15 (80%) without a neuroimaging study but in only 24/70 (34%) of cases in which a neuroimaging study was performed (P = 0.001).

Conclusions:

Although eye movement abnormalities historically have been considered a key localizing clinical feature supporting the diagnosis of PH, we found that in the era of modern neuroimaging, co-occurring eye movement abnormalities are far less frequent and are not a requisite feature of the diagnosis.

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