Detailed Anatomy of Osteoperiosteal Ligamentous Structures in the Forehead
This study aimed to present the anatomic characteristics of osteoperiosteal ligamentous attachments of the forehead and provide a better understanding of lateral eyebrow descent for safe and effective foreheadplasty. Anatomic dissections of the face were performed in 10 fresh Korean adult cadavers (20 hemifaces) using 2.5× magnification surgical loupes. Supraorbital, inferomedial orbital, and frontonasal osteoperiosteal ligamentous attachments were identified as fibrous tissues originating from a bone, and their tensile strengths were measured. The supraorbital osteoperiosteal ligamentous attachment had medial and lateral parts. It can be classified into 4 subtypes. It was located 11.0 ± 6.6 mm lateral to the midline and 9.2 ± 12.3 mm superior to the superior orbital margin. The inferomedial orbital osteoperiosteal ligamentous attachment was located 16.2 ± 3.9 mm lateral to the midline and 2.2 ± 2.7 mm inferior to the superior orbital margin, whereas the frontonasal osteoperiosteal ligamentous attachment was located 5.4 ± 2.3 mm lateral to the midline and 1.4 ± 8.5 mm superior to the superior orbital margin. Tensile strengths of all the osteoperiosteal ligamentous attachments in the forehead were above 10 N. These results indicate that osteoperiosteal ligamentous attachments develop in the rather medial region of the eyebrow and have a tensile strength adequate enough to maintain the medial eyebrow. Thus, the current study provides surgeons with detailed anatomic information that can be used as a valuable reference for forehead rejuvenation procedures.