Urinary Tract Injury in Gynecologic Laparoscopy for Benign Indication: A Systematic Review
To perform a comprehensive literature review of the incidence, location, etiology, timing, management, and long-term sequelae of urinary tract injury in gynecologic laparoscopy for benign indication.DATA SOURCES:
A systematic review of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov was conducted.METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION:
Four hundred thirty-three studies were screened for inclusion with 136 full-text articles reviewed. Ninety studies published between 1975 and 2015 met inclusion criteria, representing 140,444 surgeries. Articles reporting the incidence of urinary tract injury in gynecologic laparoscopy for benign indication were included. Exclusion criteria comprised malignancy, surgery by urogynecologists, research not in English, and insufficient data.TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS:
A total of 458 lower urinary tract injuries were reported with an incidence of 0.33% (95% CI 0.30–0.36). Bladder injury (0.24%, 95% CI 0.22–0.27) was overall three times more frequent than ureteral injury (0.08%, 95% CI 0.07–0.10). Laparoscopic hysterectomy not otherwise specified (1.8%, 95% CI 1.2–2.6) and laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (1.0%, 95% CI 0.9–1.2) had the highest rates of injury. Most ureteral injuries resulted from electrosurgery (33.3%, 95% CI 24.3–45.8), whereas most bladder injuries resulted from lysis of adhesions (23.3%, 95% CI 18.7–29.0). Ureteral injuries were most often recognized postoperatively (60%, 95% CI 47–76) and were repaired by open ureteral anastomosis (47.4%, 95% CI 36.3–61.9). In contrast, bladder injuries were most often recognized intraoperatively (85%, 95% CI 75–95) and were repaired by laparoscopic suturing (34.9%, 95% CI 29.2–41.7).CONCLUSION:
The incidence of lower urinary tract injury in gynecologic laparoscopy for benign indication remains low at 0.33%. Bladder injury was three times more common than ureteral injury, although ureteral injuries were more often unrecognized intraoperatively and underwent open surgical repair. These risk estimates can assist gynecologic surgeons in effectively counseling their patients preoperatively concerning the risks of lower urinary tract injury.