Production of new activated bio-carbons by chemical activation of residue left after supercritical extraction of hops
A technology of activated bio-carbons production from the residue left after supercritical extraction of hops is described. The effect of the variant of chemical activation and impregnation ratio on the physicochemical properties as well as sorption capacity towards toxic gas of acidic character (nitrogen dioxide), basic organic dye (aqueous solution of methylene blue - MB) and iodine was investigated. The materials obtained were activated bio-carbons of well-developed surface area ranging between 897 and 1095 m2/g, showing clearly acidic character of the surface. The sorption tests results proved that chemical activation of the residue left after supercritical extraction of hops allows obtaining activated bio-carbons with very high sorption capacity towards nitrogen dioxide, reaching to 77.2 and 155.3 mg/g in dry and wet conditions, respectively. The maximum sorption capacity of the adsorbents towards methylene blue was 328.75 mg/g, while towards iodine 1815 mg/g. The equilibrium data for aqueous solution of MB were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models, whereas the kinetics of the adsorption process was studied using pseudo-first and second-order models. According to the obtained data, the adsorption of MB from aqueous solution is better described by Langmuir model and pseudo-second order kinetic model.