Genistein and daidzein treatments differently affect uterine homeostasis in the ovary-intact middle-aged rats

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This study aimed to investigate the effects of soy isoflavones, genistein (GEN) and daidzein, (DAI) on the uterine function in ovary-intact middle-aged rats. GEN and DAI (35 mg/kg) were subcutaneously administrated to acyclic (12-month-old) Wistar females, daily, for 4 weeks. Control group received either vehicle (olive oil and ethanol, 9:1) or remained intact. We found that GEN and DAI differently affect uterine morphophysiology. GEN significantly increased the uterine wet weight which was associated with hyperplastic changes, revealed by stereological and histomorphometrical analyses. Also, PCNA immunoexpression was increased, whereas expression of apoptotic marker (caspase-3) was decreased. Protein and gene expressions of ERα were down-regulated, while PR and ERβ were up-regulated after GEN application. Also, GEN caused an increase of LAC and VEGF mRNA expression, together with an up-regulation of Akt activity. In contrast, DAI did not change the uterine wet weight and stereological features of the main uterine compartments as well as LAC and VEGF gene expression. Absence of hyperplastic changes were illustrated by an increase in caspase-3 immunoexpression, associated with reduced PCNA expression. DAI up-regulated only the expression of ERβ, while the expression levels of ERα and PR remain unaffected. Also, DAI inhibited the activation of Akt due to down-regulation of phosphorylated and total form of Akt protein expression. Compared to GEN, DAI did not promote events associated with the endometrial cell proliferation in the conducted study, figuring as the compound with a potential safety profile, which justifies further investigation.

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