Choroidal neovascular membrane in paediatric patients: clinical characteristics and outcomes

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Abstract

Purpose

To analyse the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVM) in paediatric subjects at three paediatric retina referral centres.

Methods

Medical charts of patients aged 18 years or less with a diagnosis of CNVM were retrospectively reviewed. The demographic profile, laterality, presenting complaint, corrected vision, underlying pathology, fundus, fundus fluorescein angiogram and optical coherence tomogram (OCT) were analysed. CNVM type, frequency, treatment indications, recurrences and final visual acuity were noted.

Results

There were a total of 35 subjects (43 eyes) with a mean age of 11.2 years. The CNVMs were mostly type 2 (90.0%), classic (90.9%), subfoveal (59.09%) and active (84.1%). Best vitelliform macular dystrophy was found to be the most common association (32.5%). Intravitreal injection of an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent was the initial therapy of choice in all. Eyes with CNVMs responsive to anti-VEGF alone required a mean of 2.11 injections. Patients with recurrent disease (21.21%) had an average of 1.14 episodes per eye. While 50% of recurrent CNVMs stabilised with repeat anti-VEGF treatment, the remaining patients required photodynamic therapy, laser or surgery.

Conclusion

Paediatric CNVMs in this series differed from those in the adult population with regard to aetiology, OCT and angiographic characteristics, treatment response and rate of recurrence.

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