Predictors of hepatotoxicity and pancreatitis in children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated according to contemporary regimens

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Abstract

Background:

Hepatotoxicity and pancreatitis are common treatment-related toxicities (TRTs) during contemporary treatment regimens for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Limited detailed data from Children's Oncology Group (COG) regimens has been previously reported to enable identification of patient and treatment risk factors for these toxicities and their impact on outcomes.

Procedure:

We analyzed a retrospective pediatric ALL cohort treated at a single institution according to COG regimens from 2008 to 2015. The primary endpoint was cumulative incidence of study-defined “severe” hepatotoxicity (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [CTCAE] Grade ≥ 4 transaminitis or Grade ≥ 3 hyperbilirubinemia) and clinically significant pancreatitis (any grade). Pancreatitis was additionally classified using the Ponte di Legno (PdL) toxicity criteria. Secondary endpoints were chemotherapy interruptions, early disease response (end of induction [EOI] minimal residual disease [MRD]), and event-free survival (EFS).

Results:

We identified 262 patients, of whom 71 (27%) and 28 (11%) developed hepatotoxicity and pancreatitis, respectively. Three cases of pancreatitis did not fulfill PdL criteria despite otherwise consistent presentations. Both TRTs occurred throughout therapy, but approximately 25% of hepatotoxicity (18/71) and pancreatitis (8/28) occurred during induction alone. Both obesity and age (≥10 years) were identified as predictors of hepatotoxicity (subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR] obesity = 1.75, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.04–2.96; SHR age ≥10 = 1.9, 95% CI 1.19–3.10) and pancreatitis (SHR obesity = 2.18, 95% CI 1.01–4.67; SHR age ≥ 10 = 2.76, 95% CI 1.19–6.39, P = 0.018). Dose interruptions were common but neither toxicity influenced EOI MRD nor EFS.

Conclusions:

Obese and/or older children are particularly at risk for hepatotoxicity and pancreatitis, and may benefit from toxicity surveillance and chemoprotective strategies to prevent or mitigate associated morbidity.

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