Abduction in Proximal Hamstring Tendon Avulsion Injury Mechanism-A Report on 3 Athletes.
Proximal hamstring tendon avulsions are typically sustained during forced hip hyperflexion combined with knee extension. We present 3 cases of athletes with a proximal hamstring tendon avulsion caused by an alternative injury mechanism that also involves a considerable hip abduction component (flexion-abduction injury mechanism). All cases had at least one concurrent injury of the medial thigh muscles, either on the ipsilateral or contralateral side. The 2 elite athletes with this injury mechanism returned to sport at preinjury level relatively quickly. A history of the flexion-abduction mechanism should raise suspicion of a hamstring tendon avulsion with concomitant injury of the medial thigh muscles. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol should include both legs, and any concurrent injury may need to be addressed as well. In future studies, it would be interesting to investigate whether injury mechanism holds prognostic value in proximal hamstring tendon avulsions.