Emerging proteomic technologies using novel affinity-based reagents allow for efficient multiplexing with high-sample throughput. To identify early biomarkers of myocardial injury, we recently applied an aptamer-based proteomic profiling platform that measures 1129 proteins to samples from patients undergoing septal alcohol ablation for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a human model of planned myocardial injury. Here, we examined the scalability of this approach using a markedly expanded platform to study a far broader range of human proteins in the context of myocardial injury.Methods:
We applied a highly multiplexed, expanded proteomic technique that uses single-stranded DNA aptamers to assay 4783 human proteins (4137 distinct human gene targets) to derivation and validation cohorts of planned myocardial injury, individuals with spontaneous myocardial infarction, and at-risk controls.Results:
We found 376 target proteins that significantly changed in the blood after planned myocardial injury in a derivation cohort (n=20; P<1.05E-05, 1-way repeated measures analysis of variance, Bonferroni threshold). Two hundred forty-seven of these proteins were validated in an independent planned myocardial injury cohort (n=15; P<1.33E-04, 1-way repeated measures analysis of variance); >90% were directionally consistent and reached nominal significance in the validation cohort. Among the validated proteins that were increased within 1 hour after planned myocardial injury, 29 were also elevated in patients with spontaneous myocardial infarction (n=63; P<6.17E-04). Many of the novel markers identified in our study are intracellular proteins not previously identified in the peripheral circulation or have functional roles relevant to myocardial injury. For example, the cardiac LIM protein, cysteine- and glycine-rich protein 3, is thought to mediate cardiac mechanotransduction and stress responses, whereas the mitochondrial ATP synthase F0 subunit component is a vasoactive peptide on its release from cells. Last, we performed aptamer-affinity enrichment coupled with mass spectrometry to technically verify aptamer specificity for a subset of the new biomarkers.Conclusions:
Our results demonstrate the feasibility of large-scale aptamer multiplexing at a level that has not previously been reported and with sample throughput that greatly exceeds other existing proteomic methods. The expanded aptamer-based proteomic platform provides a unique opportunity for biomarker and pathway discovery after myocardial injury.